Cassava Products for Animal Feeding
This is the most common form in which dried cassava roots are marketed and most exporting countries produce them. The chips are dried irregular slices of roots, which vary in size but should not exceed 5 cm in length so that they can be stored in silos.
|Production of cassava chips||
They are produced extensively in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and some parts of Africa. The present method of processing chips is very simple, consisting of peeling, washing, chipping the cassava roots, and then sun drying the slices or chips.
The recovery rate of chips from roots is about 20-40% depending on the initial dry-matter content of the cassava roots and the final moisture of the chips.
General specifications for cassava chips, flour, starch, and pellets are presented in Table1 while specifications for chips intended for export to the European Community for use in livestock feeds is in Table 2.
High quality cassava flour
Livestock feed industry
Livestock feed products
Starch in paper, etc.
Starch in food
Chips should be white or near white in color, free from extraneous matter, molds, insect infestation and damage, and possess no peculiar odors. In addition, shipments of chips must not contain significant amounts of dust, as this is considered unacceptable by European importers.
|Production of cassava
Pellets are produced by feeding dried cassava chips into the pelleting machine, followed by screening and bagging for export. Powdered chips which fall down during pelleting are re-pressed into pellets and the process repeated.
There is usually about 2-3% loss of weight during the process. Pellets have the following advantages over chips: quality is more uniform; they occupy 25-30% less space than chips, thus reducing the cost of transport and storage; handling charges for loading and unloading are also cheaper; they usually reach their destination sound and undamaged, while a great part of a cargo of sliced chips is damaged in long-distance shipment because of sweating and heating.
An indigenous fabricator in Nigeria, B & T Ventures, Ibadan, in collaboration with the cassava project at IITA, has been able to design and fabricate a pelleting machine that can produce three different types of cassava pellets: hard, soft, and floating. The floating pellets are used for feeding fish, the hard ones are for poultry and the soft ones for ruminants.
Cassava residual pulp
Livestock feed formulations with cassava
Cassava flour can be complemented with a large number of ingredients that provide the nutrients needed to obtain balanced food rations for poultry. Soybean (full fat) is presented as a very special and synergetic resource in the design of programs with high nutritional quality. The lack of protein and essential fatty acids that characterize the cassava flour can be amply satisfied with the use of soybean. Indeed, a balanced mixture of cassava flour and whole soybean can totally meet the requirements of energy, protein, and essential fatty acids for broilers and layers.
The specific nutritional requirements for broiler and layer diets offer favorable conditions to be satisfied by different mixtures of cassava flour and whole soybean. Likewise, this complementary function simplifies the design of feeding programs under commercial conditions. The soybean can be processed by extrusion or toasting methods. Evaluations conducted using both products have shown similar results.
Cassava feeds for livestock other than poultry
Several trials using cassava on cattle, sheep, goat and pigs are reported in Hahn et al. (1992) and recently by Tewe (2003) (Table 6)
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