Fufu Flour

Fufu is a fermented wet-paste made from cassava. It is ranked next to gari as an indigenous food of most Nigerians in the south. Fufu is made by steeping whole or cut peeled cassava roots in water to ferment for a maximum of three days, depending on ambient temperature.
Process flow chart for fufu During steeping, fermentation decreases the pH, softens the roots, and helps to reduce potentially toxic cyanogenic compounds. When sufficiently soft, the roots are taken out, broken by hand, and sieved to remove the fibers.
Cassava Utilization
Fufu flour
High quality cassava flour
Glucose syrup
Composite bread
Livestock feed industry
Livestock feed products
Starch in paper, etc.
Starch in food
Starch production
At present, processors sieve manually by adding water to the retted mass on nylon or cloth screens. The fiber produced as a by-product is sold for animal feed, either in its wet form or after sun-drying. The sieved mass is allowed to sediment in a large container for about 24 hours. After sedimentation, the water is poured off while the fine, clean sediment (mainly starch) is dewatered using a high powered Press. The cake is then sifted before drying.
Apart from being easy to prepare the consumable form, dried fufu has the advantages of having a longer shelf life,being more convinient to store, and less bulky. When cooked, fufu is a creamy/white smooth textured product. When properly packaged and stored, dried fufu flour has a shelf-life of six months or more.
Postharvest Equipment
Fermentation system for fufu production
The Two types of fermentation are currently gaining wider acceptance by cassava processors in Nigeria.
Submerged technology
The technique adopted is the typical Yoruba fufu processing method. Peeled cassava roots are washed and soaked in fermenting vats for 4 days. The fermented roots are then sieved in muslin cloths. The filtrate is discarded. The sediment is collected in baskets and drained, then packed in woven polyethylene fiber sacks and allowed to drain.
Submerged/Solid State technology
The technique adopted is typical of the south-south and south-east fufu processing method. It differs from the traditional in three ways:
  • Grating of cassava roots after 3 days of submerged fermentation using a mechanical grater.
  • A second stage of solid state fermentation (this can be described as "double fermentation").
  • Sieving with very little water.
Use of surface tanks for fermentations
The construction of surface tanks facilitates the soaking of cassava tubers and can increase the volume of fufu processed per cycle. Different types of tank can be constructed, but the most efficient are those with accessible stoppers/taps to control water flow and drain off, and those with effective drainage areas. These save on the time and drudgery spent in emptying the tanks by hand. Processors can get tanks made for them or rent them from service providers.
Processing Equipment
  1. Weighing Balance
  2. Washing machine
  3. Presser
  4. Grater
  5. Rotary Dryer
  6. Disc or pin milling machine
  7. Sealer

The design should ensure that all parts of the equipment are accessible for efficient cleaning. Materials used to fabricate equipment should maintain a surface that is easily cleaned. The equipment should be located to allow adequate maintenance and cleaning and should provide easy and convenient handling of raw material and products.

Operators must consider the occupational safety of processing staff and prevent chemical, physical, and microbiological contamination of cassava and its products. The equipment should function according to intended use.

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